Manual de referència

Aquest document està protegit per Copyright © 2010-2015 pels seus autors, que se citen a continuació. Podeu distribuir-ho i/o modificar-ho sota els termes de la GNU General Public License (http://www.gnu.org/licenses/gpl.html), versió 3 o posterior, o la Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), versió 3.0 o posterior.

Totes les marques comercials citades en aquesta guia pertanyen als seus propietaris legítims.

Contribuïdors

Jean-Pierre Charras, Fabrizio Tappero.

Traducció

Robert Antoni Buj Gelonch <rbuj@fedoraproject.org>, 2016

Realimentació

Si us plau, adreceu aquí els vostres informes d’errors de programari, suggeriments o per a noves versions:

Data de publicació i versió del programari

2015, May 21.

1. Introducció

1.1. KiCad

KiCad és una eina de programari de codi obert per a la creació de diagrames d’esquemes electrònics i plaques de circuits impresos. Sota la seva aparença singular, KiCad incorpora un recull elegant de les següents eines de programari:

  • KiCad: Project manager

  • Eeschema: Schematic editor and component editor

  • Pcbnew: Circuit board layout editor and footprint editor

  • GerbView: Gerber viewer

3 utility tools are also included:

  • Bitmap2Component: Component maker for logos. It creates a schematic component or a footprint from a bitmap picture.

  • PcbCalculator: A calculator that is helpful to calculate components for regulators, track width versus current, transmission lines, etc.

  • Pl Editor: Page layout editor.

Aquestes eines generalment s’executen des del gestor del projecte, però també es poden executar com a eines independents.

En el moment d’escriure aquest document, es considera que KiCad està prou madur per al desenvolupament i manteniment de plaques electròniques complexes.

KiCad no presenta cap limitació quan a la mida de la placa, pot gestionar fins a 32 capes de coure, 14 capes tècniques i 4 capes auxiliars.

KiCad can create all the files necessary for building printed circuit boards, including:

  • Fitxers Gerber per als foto-plòters

  • fitxers de perforació

  • fitxers d’ubicació de components

En ser codi obert (amb llicència GPL), KiCad representa l’eina ideal per als projectes orientats a la creació de maquinari electrònic amb un gust de codi obert.

KiCad is available for Linux, Windows and Apple macOS.

1.2. Fitxers i directoris de KiCad

KiCad crea i utilitza els fitxers (i els directoris) amb les següents extensions específiques de fitxers per a l’edició d’esquemes i de plaques.

Ficher del gestor del projecte:

*.pro

Fitxer de mida reduïda que conté alguns paràmetres per al projecte actual, incloent-hi la llista de biblioteques de components.

Fitxers de l’editor d’esquemes:

*.sch

Els fitxers dels esquemes, els quals no contenen els components en si mateixos.

*.lib

Els fitxers de les biblioteques de components esquemàtics, que contenen les descripcions dels components: la forma gràfica, els pins i els camps.

*.dcm

La documentació de les biblioteques de components esquemàtics, que conté algunes descripcions dels components: el comentari, la paraula clau, la referència al full de dades.

*_cache.lib

El fitxer de memòria cau per a les biblioteques de components esquemàtics, que conté una còpia dels components utilitzats al projecte de l’esquemàtic.

Fitxers i directoris de l’editor de plaques:

*.kicad_pcb

Board file containing all info but the page layout.

*.pretty

Footprint library folders. The folder itself is the library.

*.kicad_mod

Footprint files, containing one footprint description each.

*.brd

Board file in the legacy format. Can be read, but not written, by the current board editor.

*.mod

Footprint library in the legacy format. Can be read by the footprint or the board editor, but not written.

fp-lib-table

Footprint library list (footprint libraries table): list of footprint libraries (various formats) which are loaded by the board or the footprint editor or CvPcb.

Fitxers comuns

*.kicad_wks

Page layout description files, for people who want a worksheet with a custom look.

*.net

Netlist file created by the schematic, and read by the board editor. This file is associated to the .cmp file, for users who prefer a separate file for the component/footprint association.

Fitxers especials

*.cmp

Association between components used in the schematic and their footprints. It can be created by Pcbnew, and imported by Eeschema. The purpose is a back import from Pcbnew to Eeschema, for users who change footprints inside Pcbnew (for instance using Exchange Footprints command) and want to import these changes in schematic.

Altres fitxers:

Es generen amb KiCad per a la fabricació o la documentació.

*.gbr

Gerber files, for fabrication.

*.drl

Drill files (Excellon format), for fabrication.

*.pos

Position files (ASCII format), for automatic insertion machines.

*.rpt

Report files (ASCII format), for documentation.

*.ps

Plot files (Postscript), for documentation.

*.pdf

Plot files (PDF format), for documentation.

*.svg

Plot files (SVG format), for documentation.

*.dxf

Plot files (DXF format), for documentation.

*.plt

Plot files (HPGL format), for documentation.

2. Instal·lació i configuració

2.1. Opcions de visualització

Pcbnew needs the support of OpenGL v2.1 or higher.

2.2. Instal·lació de la configuració predeterminada

A default configuration file named kicad.pro is supplied in kicad/template. It serves as a template for any new project and is used to set the list of library files loaded by Eeschema. A few other parameters for Pcbnew (default text size, default line thickness, etc.) are also stored here.

Another default configuration file named fp-lib-table may exist. It will be used only once to create a footprint library list; otherwise the list will be created from scratch.

2.3. Modifying the default configuration

The default kicad.pro file can be freely modified, if desired.

Verifiqueu que tingueu accés d’escriptura a kicad/template/kicad.pro

Run KiCad and load kicad.pro project.

Run Eeschema via KiCad. Modify and update the Eeschema configuration, to set the list of libraries you want to use each time you create new projects.

Run Pcbnew via KiCad. Modify and update the Pcbnew configuration, especially the footprint library list. Pcbnew will create or update a library list file called footprint library table. There are 2 library list files (named fp-lib-table): The first (located in the user home directory) is global for all projects and the second (located in the project directory), if it exists, is specific to the project.

2.4. Initialization of external utilities

When using KiCad, choosing a text editor and a PDF viewer is useful.

These settings are accessible from the Preference menu:

images/ca/preferences_menu.png

2.5. La configuració dels camins

In KiCad, one can define paths using an environment variable. A few environment variables are internally defined by KiCad, and can be used to define paths for libraries, 3D shapes, etc.

This is useful when absolute paths are not known or are subject to change, and also when one base path is shared by many similar items. Consider the following which may be installed in varying locations:

  • Eeschema component libraries

  • Pcbnew footprint libraries

  • 3D shape files used in footprint definitions

For instance, the path to the connect.pretty footprint library, when using the KISYSMOD environment variable, would be ${KISYSMOD}/connect.pretty

This option allows you to define a path with an environment variable, and add your own environment variables to define personal paths, if needed.

KiCad environment variables:

KICAD_PTEMPLATES

Templates used during project creation. If you are using this variable, it must be defined.

KIGITHUB

Frequently used in example footprint lib tables. If you are using this variable, it must be defined.

KISYS3DMOD

Base path of 3D shapes files, and must be defined because an absolute path is not usually used.

KISYSMOD

Base path of footprint library folders, and must be defined if an absolute path is not used in footprint library names.

images/ca/configure_path_dlg.png

Note also the environment variable KIPRJMOD is always internally defined by KiCad, and is the current project absolute path.

For instance, ${KIPRJMOD}/connect.pretty is always the connect.pretty folder (the pretty footprint library) found inside the current project folder.

If you modify the configuration of paths, please quit and restart KiCad to avoid any issues in path handling.

2.6. Selection of text editor

Before using a text editor to browse/edit files in the current project, you must choose the text editor you want to use.

Select Preferences → Set Text Editor to set the text editor you want to use.

2.7. Selection of PDF viewer

You may use the default PDF viewer or choose your own.

To change from the default PDF viewer use Preferences → PDF Viewer → Set PDF Viewer to choose the PDF viewer program, then select Preferences → PDF Viewer → Favourite PDF Viewer.

On Linux the default PDF viewer is known to be fragile, so selecting your own PDF viewer is recommended.

2.8. KiCad principles of use

In order to manage a KiCad project of schematic files, printed circuit board files, supplementary libraries, manufacturing files for photo-tracing, drilling and automatic component placement files, it is recommended to create a project as follows:

  • Creació d’un directori de treball per al projecte (amb KiCad o de qualsevol altra manera).

  • En aquest directori, utilitzeu KiCad per a crear un fitxer de projecte (el fitxer amb l’extensió .pro) a través de les icones «Crea un nou projecte» o «Crea un nou projecte des d’una plantilla».

Advertència
Use a unique directory for each KiCad project. Do not combine multiple projects into a single directory.

KiCad creates a file with a .pro extension that maintains a number of parameters for project management (such as the list of libraries used in the schematic). Default names of both main schematic file and printed circuit board file are derived from the name of the project. Thus, if a project called example.pro was created in a directory called example, the default files will be created:

example.pro

Project management file.

example.sch

Main schematic file.

example.kicad_pcb

Printed circuit board file.

example.net

Netlist file.

example.*

Various files created by the other utility programs.

example-cache.lib

Library file automatically created and used by the schematic editor containing a backup of the components used in the schematic.

3. Using KiCad manager

The KiCad Manager (kicad or kicad.exe) is a tool which can easily run the other tools (schematic and PCB editors, Gerber viewer and utility tools) when creating a design.

L’execució de les altres eines des del gestor KiCad té alguns avantatges:

  • Proves creuades entre l’editor d’esquemàtics i l’editor de plaques.

  • Proves creuades entre l’editor d’esquemàtics i el selector d’empremtes (CvPcb).

However, you can only edit the current project files. When these tools are run in stand alone mode, you can open any file in any project but cross probing between tools can give strange results.

3.1. Finestra principal

images/ca/main_window.png

La finestra principal de KiCad es compon d’una vista en arbre del projecte, un panell de llançament que conté els botons que s’utilitzen per executar les diverses eines de programari, i una finestra de missatges. El menú i la barra d’eines es poden utilitzar per a crear, llegir i desar els fitxers del projecte.

3.2. Panell per llançar les utilitats

KiCad us permet executar totes les eines de programari que s’inclouen per si soles.

El panell de llançament està format pels 8 botons de sota que corresponen a les següents ordres (d’1 a 8, d’esquerra a dreta):

images/launch_pane.png

1

Eeschema

Schematic editor.

2

LibEdit

Component editor and component library manager.

3

Pcbnew

Board layout editor.

4

FootprintEditor

Footprint editor and footprint library manager.

5

Gerbview

Gerber file viewer. It can also display drill files.

6

Bitmap2component

Tool to build a footprint or a component from a B&W bitmap image to create logos.

7

Pcb Calculator

Tool to calculate track widths, and many other things.

8

Pl Editor

Page layout editor, to create/customize frame references.

3.3. Vista en arbre del projecte

images/project_tree.png

Double-clicking on the Eeschema icon runs the schematic editor, in this case opening the file pic_programmer.sch.

Double-clicking on the Pcbnew icon runs the layout editor, in this case opening the file pic_programmer.kicad_pcb.

En fer clic dret en qualsevol dels fitxers a l’arbre del projecte permet la manipulació genèrica del fitxer.

3.4. Barra d’eines superior

images/main_toolbar.png

KiCad top toolbar allows for some basic file operations:

images/icons/new_project.png

Create a project file. If the template kicad.pro is found in kicad/template, it is copied into the working directory.

images/icons/new_project_with_template.png

Create a project from a template.

images/icons/open_project.png

Open an existing project.

images/icons/save_project.png

Update and save the current project tree.

images/icons/zip.png

Create a zip archive of the whole project. This includes schematic files, libraries, PCB, etc.

images/icons/reload.png

Rebuild and redraw the tree view, sometimes needed after a tree change.

4. Project templates

A template facilitates the easy creation of a new project, based on a template definition. Templates may contain pre-defined board outlines, connector positions, schematic elements, design rules, etc. Complete schematics and/or PCBs used as seed files for the new project may even be included.

4.1. Using Templates

The File → New Project → New Project from Template menu will open the Project Template Selector dialog:

images/ca/template_selector.png

A single click on a template’s icon will load that template’s information, and a further click on the OK button creates the new project. The template files will be copied to the new project location and renamed to reflect the new project’s name.

Després de seleccionar una plantilla:

images/ca/template_selected.png

4.2. Template Locations:

La llista de les plantilles disponibles es recullen en les següents fonts:

  • System templates: <kicad bin dir>/../share/kicad/template/

  • User templates:

    • Unix: ~/kicad/templates/

    • Windows: C:\Documents and Settings\username\My Documents\kicad\templates

    • Mac: ~/Documents/kicad/templates/

  • When the environment variable KICAD_PTEMPLATES is defined there is a third tab, Portable Templates, which lists templates found at the KICAD_PTEMPLATES path.

4.3. Creating templates

The template name is the directory name under which the template files are stored. The metadata directory, in a subdirectory named meta, contains files which describe the template.

All files and directories in a template are copied to the new project path when a project is created using a template, except meta.

All files and directories which start with the template name will be renamed with the new project file name, excluding the file extension.

The metadata consists of one required file, and may contain optional files. All files must be created by the user using a text editor or previous KiCad project files, and placed into the required directory structure.

Here are project files for a raspberrypi-gpio template:

images/ca/template_tree.png

And the metadata files:

images/ca/template_tree_meta.png

4.3.1. Required File:

meta/info.html

HTML-formatted information describing the template.

The <title> tag determines the actual name of the template that is exposed to the user for template selection. Note that the project template name will be cut off if it’s too long. Due to font kerning, typically 7 or 8 characters can be displayed.

Using HTML means that images can be easily in-lined without having to invent a new scheme. Only basic HTML tags can be used in this document.

Here is a sample info.html file:

<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.0 Transitional//EN">
<HTML>
<HEAD>
<META HTTP-EQUIV="CONTENT-TYPE" CONTENT="text/html;
charset=windows-1252">
<TITLE>Raspberry Pi - Expansion Board</TITLE>
<META NAME="GENERATOR" CONTENT="LibreOffice 3.6 (Windows)">
<META NAME="CREATED" CONTENT="0;0">
<META NAME="CHANGED" CONTENT="20121015;19015295">
</HEAD>
<BODY LANG="fr-FR" DIR="LTR">
<P>This project template is the basis of an expansion board for the
<A HREF="http://www.raspberrypi.org/" TARGET="blank">Raspberry Pi $25
ARM board.</A> <BR><BR>This base project includes a PCB edge defined
as the same size as the Raspberry-Pi PCB with the connectors placed
correctly to align the two boards. All IO present on the Raspberry-Pi
board is connected to the project through the 0.1&quot; expansion
headers. <BR><BR>The board outline looks like the following:
</P>
<P><IMG SRC="brd.png" NAME="brd" ALIGN=BOTTOM WIDTH=680 HEIGHT=378
BORDER=0><BR><BR><BR><BR>
</P>
<P>(c)2012 Brian Sidebotham<BR>(c)2012 KiCad Developers</P>
</BODY>
</HTML>

4.3.2. Fitxers opcionals:

meta/icon.png

A 64 x 64 pixel PNG icon file which is used as a clickable icon in the template selection dialog.

Any other image files used by meta/info.html, such as the image of the board file in the dialog above, are placed in this folder as well.